nice to see you here at the forum.
I am not able to give you detailed answers on every question, since I do not understand the project completly. It is very complex. A good beginning is most likely the whitepaper written by Sunny King: http://ppcoin.org/static/primecoin-paper.pdf
It is not possible to find out, who discovered the record chains, except he or she is willing to let us know. Additionaly those people have to notice it, which most likely didn't happen. Myself discovered several blocks/chains, but i didn't check, if one of it is a record chain. I doubt, that bigger miners who mine thousends of blocks will check it. Perhaps in a feature release some kind of notification could be build in to make people aware of the record chains.
Date and time of the new records is no problem. https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=253409.0
I hope this will help you a little bit